Enigmatic in function and meaning, the cong probably signified wealth and social status. They used two distinct types of ritual jade objects: a disc, later known as a bi, and a tube, later known as a cong. Cong. If the hole is larger in proportion to the whole area of the disc, then the jade is generally known as a 'huang' in Chinese. Spectacular examples have been found at all the major archaeological sites. Closed Good Friday & Christmas Day, Update from the Gallery regarding COVID-19, Read the latest visit information, including hours, Conversations through the Asian collections. The earliest cong were produced by the Liangzhu culture (3400-2250 BC); later examples date mainly from the Shang and Zhou dynasties.. Interest in the jade shape developed during the 12th-13th century Song dynasty.The shape continued to be used in ceramic and metalwork for centuries. There are a number of relatively tall 'cong' in museums in Asia and in the West; the Victoria and Albert Museum in London and in the major collections in the United States, … Jade discs have been found carefully laid on the bodies of the dead in tombs of the Hongshan culture (about 3800-2700 B.C.E. Zhejiang Institute of Archaeology, Hangzhou. There are two types of cong – single-section ones, as well as longer types. The gallery's 'huang' ring (Acc.no. Media related to Cong (vessel) at Wikimedia Commons, http://www.asia.si.edu/explore/china/jades/gallery.asp#cong, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/72376, https://www.britishmuseum.org/visiting/galleries/asia/room_33b_chinese_jade.aspx, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cong_(vessel)&oldid=950075338, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Neolithic Chinese Jades", Angus Forsyth, in, This page was last edited on 10 April 2020, at 03:12. Two types were popular; the plain ring and the ring with a central vertical collar. Stone rings were being made by the peoples of eastern China as early as the fifth millennium B.C.E. Their function and meaning are completely unknown. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... คำศัพท์ copy 63 Terms. Liangzhu, China. Cong are among the most impressive yet most enigmatic of all ancient Chinese jade artifacts. The CONG was used from the early Neolithicum until Historic Times. Longquan celadon cong, 12th–13th century. We are observing strict physical distancing and hygiene measures to protect the health of visitors and staff and minimise the spread of COVID-19 (coronavirus). Although generally considered to be a ritual object of some sort, the original function and meaning of the cong are unknown. Jade cong from Liangzhu culture, Neolithic Period (3300 - 2200 B.C. Jade Cong is a World of Warcraft object that can be found in The Jade Forest. The term 'bi' has been applied to discs with small central holes. We acknowledge the traditional custodians of the Country on which the Gallery stands, the Gadigal of the Eora Nation, and recognise their continuing connection to land, waters and culture. The use and symbolism on the CONGS surely will regionally have been very various. In the Container Objects category. Read the latest visit information, including hours. pg.73© 2003 Trustees, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Shang dynasty circa 1600 - 1100 BCE The number of 'bi' and 'cong' discovered throughout late Neolithic and Bronze Age tombs and burial sites is testimony to their significance in ancient rituals and ceremonies, although their meaning and function remain uncertain. Carved jade Jade Cong , c. 2500 B.C.E., Liangzhu culture, 3.4 x 12.7 cm, China © 2003 Private Collection © Trustees of the British Museum Content: Simple masks with circular eyes and bar-shaped mouths decorate the corners. [2], Interest in the jade shape developed during the 12th-13th century Song dynasty. Unlike the richly ornamented examples from the early period, most jade 'cong' from the Western Zhou dynasty were without any decoration. The earliest cong were produced by the Liangzhu culture (3400-2250 BC); later examples date mainly from the Shang and Zhou dynasties. The outer faces are sometimes decorated with mask-like faces, which may be related to the taotie designs found on later bronze vessels. Like the 'bi' disc, the 'huang' ring is also a major type of ancient ritual jade, existing in China as early as the 5th millennium BCE. Jade in burial, Liangzhu culture (CC BY-SA 2.5 ). The outer surface is divided vertically or horizontally such that the whole defines a hollow cylinder embedded in a partial rectangular block. The gallery's example of a 'bi' (Acc.no. As Western Zhou ritual texts refer to 'bi' and 'cong' as offerings to heaven and earth respectively, they have become symbols of heaven and earth. 'Bi', a disc with a central perforation, and 'cong', a roughly square cross-section with a circular bore, are two of the most familiar jade ritual objects of ancient China. ), a practice which was continued by later Neolithic cultures. In historical times China’s chief source of nephrite has been the riverbeds of Yarkand and Hotan in present-day Xinjiang autonomous region in northwestern China, … The cong is said to have been a symbol of supreme power, and many of these objects have been found to be large, even, and of a symmetrical shape. The CONG was used from the early Neolithicum until Historic Times. The main types of cong have a square outer section around a circular inner part, and a circular hole, though jades of a bracelet shape also display some of the characteristics of cong. Added in World of Warcraft: Mists of Pandaria. A cong (Chinese: 琮; pinyin: cóng; Wade–Giles: ts'ung2) is a form of ancient Chinese jade artifact. Jade Cong, c. 2500 B.C.E., Liangzhu culture, 3.4 x 12.7 cm, ... Stone rings were being made by the peoples of eastern China as early as the fifth millennium B.C.E. The manner of manufacturing of the CONG, as size, type of jade, the ornamentation and colour, was representing the social status of a person, family or group in the state or community. Art Gallery Rd, The Domain 2000Sydney, AustraliaInfo line 1800 679 278, See opening hours and admission In a tomb found at Sidun, Jiangsu Province, numerous cong lay in a circle around the dead, suggesting that … humanities sculpture 80 Terms. Jackie Menzies (Editor), The Asian Collections Art Gallery of New South Wales, 'Bronzes and Jades', Sydney, 2003, 73 (colour illus.). 'Bi', a disc with a central perforation, and 'cong', a roughly square cross-section with a circular bore, are two of the most familiar jade ritual objects of ancient China. 289.1996) is a rich, opaque, creamy green with milkish and brown patches or veins. The Jade Cong can be found at [42.6, 15.8] on the Terrace of Ten Thunders in Jade Forest. 187.1988) is a rich, opaque green. External video. [1] It was later also used in ceramics. History. → China, Conversations through the Asian collections, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 25 Oct 2014–13 Mar 2016. ), lower Yangzi River Valley. A similar piece belongs to Sir Joseph Hotung's collection, on display at the Jade Gallery in the British Museum. They were usually found together in tombs. ), a practice which was continued by later Neolithic cultures. The use and symbolism on the CONGS surely will regionally have been very various. Jade cong. Jade Cong, Smarthistory. The shape continued to be used in ceramic and metalwork for centuries.[3]. Large ‘cong’ must have been known as early as the Song period, when they were copied in Longquan celadon and Guan ware. When was the Jade Cong created? Liangzhu, China. In form, a cong is a straight tube with a circular bore and square outer section with more or less convex sides. The square represents the earth and a circle represents the heavens. A cong ( Chinese: 琮; pinyin: cóng; Wade–Giles: ts'ung2) is a form of ancient Chinese jade artifact. A cong may most simply be described as a “squared tube with a round hole”. Jade discs have been found carefully laid on the bodies of the dead in tombs of the Hongshan culture (about 3800-2700 B.C.E. Later writings speak of the cong as symbolizing the earth, while the bi represents the heavens. 3300–2200 B.C.E. dreamphan. The example of a 'cong' is made of brownish yellow stone with brown veins and a partially glassy polish. ‘The Asian Collections: Art Gallery of New South Wales’. Although they were made at many stages of the Neolithic and early historic period, the origin of the cong in the Neolithic cultures of south-east China has only been recognized in the last thirty years. The cong is one of the principal types of jade artefact of the Liangzhu culture (about 3000-2000 BC) around Lake Tai in Jiangsu province. It … The manner of manufacturing of the CONG, as size, type of jade, the ornamentation and colour, was representing the social status of a person, family or group in the state or community. The Cong . Where was the Jade Cong created? The cong is one of the principal types of jade artefact of the Liangzhu culture (about 3000-2000 BC) around Lake Tai in Jiangsu province. For a better experience, switch to Mobile Version », The Art Gallery of New South Wales is open. c3,300 - 2,200 BCE. What museum is the Jade Cong found in? Proportions vary - a cong may be squat or taller than it is wide.

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