The Physical and Chemical Properties of Petroleum, Chapter 5: Comparisons of some properties of various crude oils are presented in Tables 1.2 and 1.3. The range of boiling temperatures of the components spans at least 550 °C; pentane, the smallest alkane liquid at room temperature, boils at 36 °C, and some oils contain material that does not boil even at 600 °C. That is, on an elemental basis, most oils have about the same composition, but on a molecular basis no two are exactly alike. Chemistry. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Elements of Petroleum Geology, Second Edition, Copyright Academic Press` 1998 under license agreement with Books24x7, Advantages of Celeroton oil-free helium compressor. 2020. TO THE The concept of equilibrium, however, makes calculations much easier. Basic Properties of Petroleum. It is blackish in color and has a characteristic odor that comes from the presence of small amounts of chemical compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen, and metals. The same authorities subclassify natural gas... © Copyright 2020 GlobalSpec - All rights reserved. Natural gas and natural gasoline are primarily mixtures of the lighter hydrocarbons with varying amounts of nonhydrocarbons such as water, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. The foregoing is the definition adopted by the American Petroleum Institute (API), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). Describes the physical and chemical properties which have the greatest bearing on the hazards arising from handling petroleum liquids. Both the physical nature and chemical composition of petroleum are determined initially by the type of organic matter in the source rock where the petroleum is generated. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Chapter 2 Physical Properties of Petroleum Gases and Liquids. Certain physical characteristics of the hydrocarbon mixtures are needed to design new equipment and to understand and predict the performance of existing equipment. The prominence of ring structure starts with five carbon atoms. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Chapter 2 Origin, Composition and Properties of Petroleum. E-mail: However, the petroleum composition may vary with its API gravity and origin. The semi-solid or solid petroleum is well known by the Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection. Skype: jacky.jkx Properties of Petroleum Products Ass. The heavier mixtures such as crude oil consist of a myriad of higher boiling hydrocarbons and various compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen. IEEE GlobalSpec may share your personal information and website activity with our clients for which you express explicit interest, or with vendors looking to reach people like you. FREE Measurement can be done either by gauging and testing a lease tank or... FBbox/ PETROLEUM Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels. It provides not only fuel and energy for transportation but is also used in plastics, paint, fertilizer, insecticide, medicine, and elsewhere. It also frequently contains significant amounts of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen together with smaller quantities of nickel, vanadium and other elements. Copyright © 1985 Published by Elsevier B.V. In general, the lower the API gravity (i.e., the heavier the crude oil), the higher the impurities content and the lower the distillates yield. Oxygen and nitrogen seldom exceed 1.5% each, but sulfur can amount to as much as 6% in extreme cases. Asphaltene molecules are grouped together in systems of up to five or six sheets, which are surrounded by the maltenes (all those structures different from asphaltenes that are soluble in n-heptane) and resin. BEST IDEAS. The physical properties are most commonly used in petroleum are as under: Density Specific gravity Volume Viscosity Refractive index Fluoresence Optical activity Colour Odour Boiling point Some physical constants of the lighter hydrocarbons and other components of petroleum gases and liquids are given in Table 2-1. Use of this website signifies your agreement to our Terms of Use. You may withdraw your consent at any time. However, raw petroleum or crude oil has characteristic properties and composition. Petroleum or crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other chemicals. TABLE 1.1. Petroleum is a naturally occurring complex mixture made up predominantly of organic carbon and hydrogen compounds. The most complex impurity of petroleum is asphaltene, which consists of condensed polynuclear aromatics containing small amounts of heteroatoms (S, N, O) and traces of nickel and vanadium. This post describes the physical and chemical properties which have the greatest bearing on the hazards arising from handling petroleum liquids. The higher the asphaltene content in crude oil, the higher the metal content; however, the increase in vanadium concentration is not proportional to that of nickel. Yet these samples could show remarkable diversity in physical characteristics, ranging from lightly colored, free-flowing liquid to dark, smelly, highly viscous material. In other words, a refinery capable of processing light petroleum cannot, without changes in some units or even complete reconfiguration, be employed to process 100% heavy petroleum. Because these elements combine in a large variety of complex ways, however, crude oils vary greatly in their chemical composition. Range of Properties of Various Types of Petroleum, TABLE 1.3. Gas hydrates are ice crystals with peculiarly structured atomic lattices, which contain molecules of methane and other gases. as well as subscriptions and other promotional notifications. In general, light crude oil is rich in light distillates, and heavy crude oil, in residuum. Condensates are hydrocarbons that are gaseous in … Notify me about educational white papers. In the oil industry, however, natural gas is defined as a mixture of hydrocarbons and varying quantities of nonhydrocarbons that exists either in the gaseous phase or in solution with crude oil in natural underground reservoirs. The hydrocarbon gases include dry gas (methane) and the wet gases (ethane, propane, butane, etc.). Properties of special importance—density, viscosity, and vapor–liquid equilibrium ratios—are discussed in the chapter. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels.Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. Include me in third-party email campaigns and surveys that are relevant to me. These properties are vapour pressure, the flammability of the gases evolved from the liquids and the density of these gases. Sedimentary Basins and Petroleum Systems, Chapter 9: Such properties make processing of heavy petroleum different from that used for light crude oil refining. ACCESS Heavy petroleum is characterized by low API gravity, large amounts of impurities, and low distillates yields; light petroleum is of much better quality. This chapter describes the physical and chemical properties of natural gas, oil, and the gas hydrates; it is a necessary prerequisite to Chapter 5, which deals with petroleum generation and migration. Zhang, Zelong For example, pentane, C5H12, is 83.3% C and 16.7% H on a weight basis; pentadecane, C15H32, is 84.9% C and 15.1% H. All possible isomers of all the alkanes between pentane and pentadecane amount to 7666 compounds, yet their elemental compositions change by only 1.6 percentage units. Properties of Various Crude Oils, TABLE 1.4. SARA Analysis and Physical Properties of Petroleum. The plastic hydrocarbons include asphalt and related substances. These properties are vapour pressure, the flammability of the gases evolved from the liquids and the density of these gases. Physical and chemical properties of petroleum 1. Petroleum production usually involves handling of vapor and liquid phases. A consequence of the wide variability of physical properties coupled with a very narrow range of composition is that carbon content cannot be used as a simple predictor of properties; in this respect, petroleum is very different from coal (Chapter 17). Petroleum exploration is largely concerned with the search for oil and gas, two of the chemically and physically diverse group of compounds termed the hydrocarbons. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. IEEE GlobalSpec collects only the personal information you have entered above, your device information, and location data. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Properties of Petroleum Products Ass. Metals have a tendency to concentrate more in the heavier fraction (asphaltene) than in the saturated and aromatic fractions. It consists of hydrocarbons of various … These new feeds are characterized by high amounts of impurities (sulfur, metals, nitrogen, asphaltenes) and low distillate yields, which make them more difficult than light crude oils to process. The liquid petroleum is usually colored from dark brown to bluish black or black, exhibiting sometimes bloom or fluorescence. The properties of petroleum, such as viscosity, density, boiling point, and color, may vary widely, and the ultimate or elemental analysis varies over a narrow range for a large number of samples.

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